Unification of Italy is a historical process of the 19th century among several states of the Italic Peninsula in southern Europe that brought to the foundation of the Kingdom of Italy (1870) and finished in the 20th century with the declaration of the Republic of Italy.
Before 1870, the Italic Peninsula (the same was the main terrain of the ancient Roman Empire) was made by several states under the governance of the Vatican (the Pontifical States), the House of Habsburg (Austria) and the House of Borbon (Spain).
The Unification of Italy is one of the last consequences of the diffusion of nationalism in Europe after the French Revolution. It intended to unify the idea of State and Nation. It is also known as Risorgimento Italiano.
First phase Edit
At the beginning of the 19th century the Italic Peninsula was divided:
- Lombardy under Austria.
- The Pontifical States under Vatican.
- Piedmont and Two Sicilies forming a kingdom with Turin as capital.
In 1830 and 1848 there were two intentions of unification that were crushed by Austria. It was under the governance of Count Cavour that the Italians could get the interest of France (especially Napoleon III) to support the Italian cause. The idea of Cavour was to expel the Austrians from the north of the Italic Peninsula and create an Italian Confederation. The Austrian were defeated by the French, but the fear of Napoleon III to get the disapproval of the French Catholics avoided the creation of the Italian Confederation. Therefore, Lombardy was given by Napoleon to Piedmont and it is considered the first phase of the Unification.
Second Phase Edit
This phase came this time from the south with Garibaldi who did an agreement with Napoleon. Garibaldi conquered Sicilia, Calabria and Napoli. In 1860 the troops of Piedmont under king Victor Manuel I arrived to Napoli and Garibaldi gave it to him. The Nationalists marched against Rome that was the ambition of them as capital of the Unified Italy. The opposition was, of course, the Vatican. In 1870 the rest of the Pontifical States were incorporated, Rome declared the capital of the new state and they declared the Kingdom of Italy.